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Cataloging Moving Image Materials

Title (MARC fields 245, 246)

1B. Title proper (245 subfield a) [7.1B, 1.1B]

If the work being cataloged was released or broadcast and has a release or broadcast title, follow AMIM and AACR2 rules for title transcription (1B) [1.1B]. AMIM provides rules for television series, theatrical series, newsreels, educational and technical series, and television news. Follow these rules when applicable. Otherwise, use the title on the item or from other sources, in the order of preference listed in 0B above.

[Use Feld Ballet example - need to check full example]

Example:245 00 |a Dance in America. |p Feld Ballet

1C. General material designation [GMD] (245 subfield h) [7.1C, 1.1C]

Use the general material designations [motion picture] or [videorecording] immediately following the title proper but preceding parallel titles (1D) and other title information (1E), if your local system allows it. Although the use of the GMD is optional in AMIM, it is recommended for index display.

Examples:245 00 |a Doug Varone and dancers |h [videorecording]
 245 00 |a South Africa native dances |h [motion picture]

1D. Parallel titles (245 subfield b) [7.1D, 1.1D]

Parallel titles are used only for released works. The title proper is the original release title in the country of production. If the title of the item being cataloged is in a different language from the original release title, use a parallel title for the language of the item in hand.

Example:245 00 |a Njinga, the queen king |h [motion picture] :|b return of a warrior = Njinga muchino a muhaito.

1E. Other title information (245 subfield b) [7.1E, 1.1E]

Other title information is any phrase, such as a subtitle, appearing in conjunction with the title proper, parallel title, or other titles.

Example:245 00 |a Speaking of dance |h [videorecording] :|b conversations with contemporary masters of American modern dance [Ö]

1E3. Trailers, outtakes, clips, excerpts, etc. [7.1E2]

If the item is dependent upon and identified by its relationship to another, add an appropriate qualifier as other title information, following the title of the related item. If the qualifier is sup[plied by the cataloger and not found on the chief source of information, bracket the qualifier. Also, if the title needs further explanation, provide an appropriate qualifier

Example:245 00 |a Alicia Markova documentation session |b [outtakes]

For a list of appropriate quilifiers see the Glossary

[Iinclude terms from AMIM in glossary]

1F. Items without a title (Formulating a title)

1F1. Items without a title [7.1B2, 1.1B7] (AMIM 1F2)

If no title appears on the moving image item and no title information can be established from any source, supply a descriptive title and enclose it in brackets. Such a title should be indicative of the item's content and distinctive enough to distinguish it from other, similar descriptive titles. Elements such as the date or location of a performance may be added to a supplied title for purposes of distinction (see also the use of date and location in formulating collective titles, below). The title should be as succinct as possible.

Note: Although brackets are not necessary if the title is taken from any source, such as the program or videocassette label, a source other than the item itself should be given in a 500 note (see 7B1).

Examples:245 00 |a May Day 1955|h[motion picture]
 500 -- |a Date in title from Shorter College file in Franziska Boas Collection, Music Div.
 245 00 |a [Tony Charmoli Dancers in rehearsal for The Danny Kaye show. No. 1, opening sketch] [...]

When a single individual is the subject of an untitled item, as in a videotaped interview (1F2.3) or home movies (1F2.6), invert the name, followed by a "--" and descriptive element, and bracket the title. If the resulting title is not distinctive enough (e.g. one of several interviews of the same person), add as necessary date, location, or other elements (e.g. name of interviewer).

[check to see that this conforms to oral history cataloging guidelines from SAA]

Examples:245 00 |a [Dunham, Katherine--interview, June 17, 1994] [...]


 245 00 |a Conversation with Katherine Dunham [...]
 500 --|a Title from videocassette label.
 245 00 |a [Kaye, Danny--home movies. Dancing with Dena at birthday party]|h [motion picture]

When formulating titles for ethnographic items, base the descriptive title on appropriate factors such as dance genre, dance group or culture, or event, as in the following format:

(Type of) dance, performed by (dance group), (culture group), (location of event), (date).

Example:245 00 |a [Sword dance, performed by Plough Stotts of Goathland, North Yorkshire, 1952]|h [motion picture]

1F2. Items without a collective title [7.1G, 1.1G] (AMIM 1F1)

A collective title is a title proper that is an inclusive title for an item (reel, videocassette, etc.) containing several works, e.g. a compilation tape or a performance tape of multiple works. Existing rules generally assume that these individual works have titles, but the item itself lacks a collective title. If the item does have a collective title or one can be found in a source, use that title and list the individual works in a contents note (505 field, see 7B20). [1B]

For items that lack titles for the works contained in them as well as a collective title, refer also to section 1F1.

1F2.1 No predominant part [7.1G4, 7.7B21]

If there is no collective title on an item or in any other source, no one work predominates, and the number of works is not prohibitive, catalog each work on the item separately.* Link the separate bibliographic records with a 501 note (see 7B23), including the MARC code for your institution if the note does not refer to the universal description of the item (e.g. if the works exist separately as well as on the same item).

*Do not apply this rule if works were all performed on the same evening as part of a single performance or event (see 1F2.2).

[SF PALM to provide example]

Follow this guideline particularly if the works are not related in any way, e.g., by the same company or choreographer, or performed at the same time or during the same program or event.

Optionally (1F1.4) [7.1G2, 1.1G3]:

If there are only two works, neither is predominant, and both have titles, but the item itself does not have a collective title, list the individual titles in subfields a and b of field 245, separated by the GMD and a space, semi-colon, space.

Example:245 00 |a Deep grammar |h [videorecording] ;|b Each one of us was two of us.
 730 02 |a Deep grammar (Choreographic work : Graham)
 730 02 |a Each one of us was two of us (Choreographic work : Graham)
 740 0b |a Each one of us was two of us.

1F2.2a No predominant part and multiple works (Related performance footage)

If no one part predominates, the works are related in some manner (by a single performing group, performed at the same location or on the same date or recorded for the same ethnographic documentation project), and there are too many works to describe each separately, supply a descriptive collective title and enclose it in brackets. Base the descriptive title on the unifying element among the works, in the following order of preference:

  • dance company or organization
  • choreographer
  • common performer
  • event or overall program title for a performance
  • venue (location)
  • subject or genre

Provide appropriate explanatory notes, summaries, and added entries. Include a contents note (505 field, see 7B20) listing the individual works and credits specific to those works.

When constructing titles for event-based performance recordings, prefer the following format:

Company name(s) in performance at (location or festival name), (date).

Examples:245 00 |a Dayton Contemporary Dance Company and Cleo Parker Robinson Dance Ensemble in performance at the American Dance Festival, June 16, 1994 [...]
 500 -- |a Title from program.
 245 00 |a [Choreographic works by George Balanchine] [...]
 245 00 |a [Ginger Rogers compilation] [...]

1F2.2b No predominant part and multiple works (Related ethnographic footage)

When constructing titles for ethnographic collections, the unifying element among works will be somewhat different than those listed above as there may not be an identifiable choreographer or company. Base the collective title on appropriate factors such as dance group or culture, event, or dance genre, with the following format as an example:

Dance of the (tribe or group), (culture group), (location of event), (date).

Examples:245 00 |a [Dances of the Tiskiouine from the Guidmioua Tribe, Grand Atlas Morocco]|h [motion picture]
 245 00 |a South Africa native dances [...]
 500 --|a Title from original film can.

Dates, and sometimes locations, are used in the title area as distinguishing elements among similar titles. If this is not necessary with the particular item being cataloged, this information may be placed in a 518 note (see 7B10/7B11).

Alternatively, the unifying element may be the ethnographic project itself.

 245 00 |a Dance at Irolerís store |h [videorecording] /|c collected by the American Folklife Center for the National Park Service [...]
 518 -- |a Videotaped in Irolerís store, Carroll County, Virginia, on August 16, 1978.
 545 -- |a In cooperation with the National Park Service, the American Folklife Center conducted a research project to document folklife in and around an area of the Blue Ridge Parkway at the Virginia and North Carolina border.

1F2.3 One predominant part (AMIM 1F1.3)

If one work is the predominant part of the item, treat the title of that work as the title proper and name the other part(s) in a 500 note (see 7B1-3), with title added entries as appropriate (740 field , see 8.3). If no work is the predominant part, see Items without a collective title (1F2).

Example:245 00 |a See it now.|p The secret life of Danny Kaye|h [videorecording]
 500 --|a Includes commercials and a closing promotional spot for The seven lively arts, a CBS show airing 1957-11-03.
 740 0- |a Seven lively arts.

1G. Statements of responsibility (245 subfield c) [7.1F, 1.1F]

According to AMIM, "Record statements of responsibility relating to those persons and bodies credited with participation in the original production of a moving image work who are considered to be of major importance, and who have some degree of overall responsibility for the work." AACR2 adds, "Give all other statements of responsibility (including those relating to performance) in notes." AMIM agrees that additional statements of responsibility, including those for cast, should be recorded in separate notes.

As AMIM reflects, those persons and bodies recorded in the statement of responsibility area for moving image works are traditionally the production company, sponsor(s), producer(s), director(s), and writer(s). Follow the general AMIM guidelines for released, distributed, or broadcast items, particularly feature films.

Examples:245 00 |a Hans Christian Andersen|h[motion picture] /|c Samuel Goldwyn presents; directed by Charles Vidor ; produced by Samuel Goldwyn ; screenplay by Moss Hart.
 245 04 |a The Danny Kaye show.|h[videorecording]|n No. 1 /|c Dena Pictures, Inc. ; CBS Television Network ; produced by Perry Lafferty ; directed by Robert Scheerer ; written by [...]

1G1. Unreleased items (e.g. performance works, compilations)

The majority of performance and ethnographic documentation is unreleased material, particularly videotape recordings of performances or ethnographic events. Therefore, the persons or bodies of major importance to the works, the statements of responsibility, will differ. The following guidelines for recording statements of responsibility for these types of work are suggested:

1G1a. Include in the statement of responsibility area those persons and bodies that receive major credit on the item or in other sources, or that, in the cataloger's judgment, are of major importance in relation to the production of the item. This will likely include choreographer, artistic director, presenting organization, videographer, ethnographer (or collector, researcher), reconstructor, and composer.

Examples:245 00 |a Symphony in three movements|h [videorecording] /|c [presented by] New York City Ballet ; choreography by George Balanchine ; music, Igor Stravinsky ; videotaped by Jay Millard.
 245 00 |a Dance at Irolerís store|h [videorecording] /|c collected by the American Folklife Center for the National Park Service ; Charles Wolfe, project director ; Margaret Owen, ethnographer ; Carl Fleischhauer, videographer.

1G1b. Record the statements of responsibility in the order in which they appear on the item, in the program, or in other sources.

1G1c. As in the first example under 1G1a, add a function or short phrase enclosed in brackets to the statement of responsibility if the relationship between the work and the person or body named is not clear (i.e. [presented by]) [7.1F2].

1G1d. The statement of responsibility area should include only persons or bodies credited with overall contribution to the item being cataloged. For example, if the item is a collection of multiple works by different choreographers, the choreographers should not appear in field 245 subfield c, but rather in the statement of responsibility area in the contents notes (505 field, see 7B20) for their respective works.

Examples:245 00 |a Dayton Contemporary Dance Company and Cleo Parker Robinson Dance Ensemble in performance at the American Dance Festival, June 16, 1994 [...]
 505 0- |a The beloved / Dayton Contemporary Dance Company ; choreography, Lester Horton ; costume execution, Gayle Smith ; music, Judith Hamilton ; lighting design, John Rensel.
 505 8- |a Las desenamoradas / [...]
 508 -- |a Dayton Contemporary Dance Company artistic director, Jeraldyne Blunden ; Cleo Parker Robinson Dance ensemble artistic director, Cleo Parker Robinson.


 245 04 |a The beloved |h[videorecording] /|c Dayton Contemporary Dance Company ; choreography, Lester Horton ; artistic director, Jeraldyne Blunden ; music, Judith Hamilton.
 508 -- |a Costume execution, Gayle Smith ; lighting design, John Rensel.
 511 -- |a Dancers: Kevin D. Ward, Debbie Blunden-Diggs, Dawn Wood...

For further clarification in the placement of particular credits, see the sections on contents (505 field, see 7B20), creation/production credits (508 field, see 7B8a), and participant or performer (511 field, see 7B8a) notes.

1H. Varying form of title (MARC field 246)

Use this field to note varying forms of the title associated with the item whether they are or are not on the item. These variant titles are recorded in field 246 only if they differ substantially from the title statement in field 245 and if they contribute to the further identification of the item. Field 246 would be used for titles forming part of the 245 field such as subtitle, parallel title, or for other distinctive titles found on the item, container or related material. The first indicator position contains a value that indicates whether a note and/or added entry is generated from the field. The second indicator position contains a value that specifies the type of title recorded in this field. It is used to generate a display constant that generally precedes titles when notes are generated from this field. Initial articles (e.g., The, La) are not recorded in field 246 unless the intent is to sort on the article (e.g., El Cid).

Use subfield "i", preceding subfield "a" in the 246 field to provide the information that was previously in a general note (500 field) and that contains text that would not be appropriate to any of the possible display associated with the second indicators value 2-8 (Distinctive title, Other title, Cover title, Added title page title, Caption title, Running title, Spine title).

Optionally: use a first indicator of 3 which will generate a title tracing but not note or display constant. Provide a note in the 500 field to explain the alternative title if needed .

Second indicator must be blank or 0 or 1

Examples:245 00 |a Princess Rajah dance [...]
 246 1- |i Shooting title in Biograph Co. production records :|a Princess Rajah, dance with chair.


 245 00 |a Princess Rajah dance [...]
 246 3- |a Princess Rajah, dance with chair.
 500 00 Shooting title in Biograph Co. production records : Princess Rajah, dance with chair.
 245 00 |a Dancing on the edge, vol. 1|h [videorecording] :|b selections from the American Dance Festival Archives / |c[...]
 246 1- |I Title on container: |a Dancing on the edge, volume one: highlights from the ADF archives.

For part titles and alternate forms of titles to be traced, no note (subfield i) is usually needed.

Examples: 245 00 |a See it now. |p The secret life of Danny Kaye [...]
 246 30 |a Secret life of Danny Kaye.
 245 00 |a Fine & Danny [...]
 246 3- |a Fine and Danny.